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Introduction to Diesel Fuels or Industrial Fuels (HSD and LDO)

Diesel fuel is basically a liquid fuel, also known as diesel oil which is used in diesel engines. Petroleum diesel is one of the type of diesel fuel which is also known as fossil diesel. It is generally find to be produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil. The average compression ratio of a diesel engine is much higher (about 15:1) than that of a gasoline engine (about 8:1) and this is the reason for the higher thermal efficiency of the diesel engine (about 33% as compared to about 25% of the gasoline engine) which makes for economy in operation. We are providing the best Industrial Fuel Oil (Industrial Fuel Oil Supplier in Baddi)all over the country and that makes us the Best Industrial Fuel Oil Supplier in Baddi. The important mechanical properties of diesel fuel includes the following:

Cetane Number

Cetane Number generally defines the ignition qulity of a diesel fuel. Whenever the cetane number is higher the ignition quality will also be higher. Cetane number requirements depend on the size of the engine, its design, load and atmospheric conditions. The minimum cetane number for diesel engines is recommended as 40.


Viscosity means the thickness of the fluid. It is simply a measure of resistance to flow and it always decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity measures at 40 degree celsius in units mm2/s

Carbon Residue

The black coloured material is collected after burning the diesel fuel is considered as carbon residue. The amount of carbon residue depends upon the running conditions of the engine. The maximum mass of carbon residue is 0.1%


As per the rule, when the viscosity of liquid fuel is higher it will lower its volatility. Therefore provided the viscosity lies within specified limits, a satisfactory volatility is automatically ensured. However, the percentage recovered at some particular temperature e.g. 366 degree Celsius, is specified in the case of HSD mainly to control engine fouling due to incomplete combustion of the higher boiling components.

Sulphur Content

After completion of combustion, sulphur from diesel fuel creates sulphuric acid which causes corrosive wear on the metal surface of engine. Corrosion can be formed within the engine after the formation of all acids but risk of corrosion formation depends upon their acidity. Also, risk of corrosion can be increased with the amount of acids and strength of acids in the mixture.


Acidity must be low during storage and distribution in order to minimize the corrosion of metals in contact with the fuel. Further, there are two types of acidity one is organic acidity and another is inorganic or mineral acidity.

Flash Point

The lowest temperature at which a petroleum substance will vapourises in the air near its surface that will be known as the flash point. Flash point is used to help in characterising the fire hazards so that it can be handled safely. The minimum recommendation of flash point is 40 degree celsius.

Ash Content

Ash content is the inorganic residue which is left behind after combustion of oil. The range of ash content is 0.1% to 0.2%. Ash forming material such as suspended solids and soluble organometallic compounds are present in diesel fuels.

Water and Sediment Content

The amount of water in diesel fuel can be measured by ASTM D1744 and the amount of sediment in diesel fuel can be measured by ASTM D2709. If there is a large quantity of sediment then it may affect the combustion of fuel.



Pour Point

The lowest temperature at which a petroleum substance will flow when tested under specific conditions will be known as the pour point. It can be measured by ASTM D97.

Cloud Point

The temperature at which a petroleum substance shows the clouds of wax crystals when it gets cooled under specific test conditions will be considered as the cloud point. It can be measured by ASTM D2500.

Cold Filter Plugging Point

The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is defined as the lowest temperature which measures the formation of wax crystals at low temperature. It is somewhat similar to the concept of cloud point. CFPP and Cloud Point can be determine according to the weather conditions and seasons of each country.

Specific Gravity

This is also known as the relative density. Basically, it refers to the ratio of density of an object like oil or fuel with reference to the material like water with a hydrometer at a given temperature. Variations in specific gravity affect the volumetric fuel consumption of an engine, since the higher the specific gravity the higher the heat content in a unit volume of the fuel. It usually affects the spray pattern of fuel while injected into the cylinder.


There are two main grades of diesel fuels are marketed in India, the one is High Speed Diesel (HSD) and the another one is Industrial Fuel Oil(Industrial Fuel Oil Supplier in Baddi). We are the best Industrial Fuel Oil Supplier in Baddi. providing the best quality oil as compared to the others. We have described all the properties of diesel fuel and have not hide anything from our customers.


CharacteristicsUnitBharat Stage IIBharat Stage IIIBharat Stage IVBharat Stage VI†

Implementation date 2001 (selected cities), 2005 (nationwide) 2005 (selected cities), 2010 (nationwide) 2010 (selected cities), 2017 (nationwide) 2020?(nationwide)
Ash, max  % mass 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Carbon Residue (Ramsbottom) on 10% residue, max †  % mass 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Cetane Number (CN), min 48* 51 51 51
Cetane Index (CI), min 46* 46 46 46
Distillation 95% vol. Recovery at °C, max °C 360 360 370
Flash point Abel, min °C 35 35 35 35
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 °C cst 2.0-5.0 2.0-5.0 2.0-4.5 2-4.5
Density @ 15 °C Kg/m3 820-860 (820-870)* 820-845 820-845 820-860
Total Sulfur, max mg/kg 500 350 50 10
Water content, max mg/kg 0.05% vol 200 200 200
Cold filter plugging point (CFPP)
a) Summer, max
b) Winter, max
Total contaminations, max mg/kg 24 24 24
Oxidation stability, max g/mg3 25 25 25
Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), max  % mass 11 11 11
Lubricity, corrected wear scar diameter (wsd 1,4) @ 60 °C, max µm (microns) 460 460 460 460
Copper Strip corrosion for 3 hrs
@ 50 °C
Rating Not worse than No. 1 Class I Class I Class I










Technical Specification BIS Standard for LDO LDO of oil Marketing companies
Calorific Value, in Kcal/kg 9900 – 10500 10300
Ash% Mass, Max 0.02 0.01-0.02
Carbon Residue (Ramsbottom) on 10% residue % by Mass, Max 1.5 1.5
Density in Kg/M3 To be reported <890
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 Deg.C. in cst 5-15.7 5-15.7
Biodegradability Poor Biodegradability  
Toxicity Highly Toxic  
Fuel type Polluting Non renewable  
Shipping Hazardous  
Total Sulphur % by mass. Max 1.8 1.5-1.8
Water content, % by volume, Max 0.25 0.25
Flash Point in Deg.C Min 66 66