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Introduction to Diesel Fuels or Industrial Fuels (HSD and LDO)

Diesel fuel is basically a liquid fuel, also known as diesel oil which is used in diesel engines. Petroleum diesel is one of the type of diesel fuel which is also known as fossil diesel. It is generally find to be produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil. The average compression ratio of a diesel engine is much higher (about 15:1) than that of a gasoline engine (about 8:1) and this is the reason for the higher thermal efficiency of the diesel engine (about 33% as compared to about 25% of the gasoline engine) which makes for economy in operation. We are providing the best LDO(LDO suppliers in Parwanoo) all over the country and that makes us the Best LDO suppliers in Parwanoo. The important mechanical properties of diesel fuel includes the following:

Cetane Number

Cetane Number generally defines the ignition qulity of a diesel fuel. Whenever the cetane number is higher the ignition quality will also be higher. Cetane number requirements depend on the size of the engine, its design, load and atmospheric conditions. The minimum cetane number for diesel engines is recommended as 40.

Viscosity

Viscosity means the thickness of the fluid. It is simply a measure of resistance to flow and it always decreases as the temperature increases. Viscosity measures at 40 degree celsius in units mm2/s

Carbon Residue

The black coloured material is collected after burning the diesel fuel is considered as carbon residue. The amount of carbon residue depends upon the running conditions of the engine. The maximum mass of carbon residue is 0.1%

Volatility

As per the rule, when the viscosity of liquid fuel is higher it will lower its volatility. Therefore provided the viscosity lies within specified limits, a satisfactory volatility is automatically ensured. However, the percentage recovered at some particular temperature e.g. 366 degree Celsius, is specified in the case of HSD mainly to control engine fouling due to incomplete combustion of the higher boiling components.

Sulphur Content

After completion of combustion, sulphur from diesel fuel creates sulphuric acid which causes corrosive wear on the metal surface of engine. Corrosion can be formed within the engine after the formation of all acids but risk of corrosion formation depends upon their acidity. Also, risk of corrosion can be increased with the amount of acids and strength of acids in the mixture.

Acidity

Acidity must be low during storage and distribution in order to minimize the corrosion of metals in contact with the fuel. Further, there are two types of acidity one is organic acidity and another is inorganic or mineral acidity.

Flash Point

The lowest temperature at which a petroleum substance will vapourises in the air near its surface that will be known as the flash point. Flash point is used to help in characterising the fire hazards so that it can be handled safely. The minimum recommendation of flash point is 40 degree celsius.

Ash Content

Ash content is the inorganic residue which is left behind after combustion of oil. The range of ash content is 0.1% to 0.2%. Ash forming material such as suspended solids and soluble organometallic compounds are present in diesel fuels.

Water and Sediment Content

The amount of water in diesel fuel can be measured by ASTM D1744 and the amount of sediment in diesel fuel can be measured by ASTM D2709. If there is a large quantity of sediment then it may affect the combustion of fuel.

 

 

Pour Point

The lowest temperature at which a petroleum substance will flow when tested under specific conditions will be known as the pour point. It can be measured by ASTM D97.

Cloud Point

The temperature at which a petroleum substance shows the clouds of wax crystals when it gets cooled under specific test conditions will be considered as the cloud point. It can be measured by ASTM D2500.

Cold Filter Plugging Point

The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is defined as the lowest temperature which measures the formation of wax crystals at low temperature. It is somewhat similar to the concept of cloud point. CFPP and Cloud Point can be determine according to the weather conditions and seasons of each country.

Specific Gravity

This is also known as the relative density. Basically, it refers to the ratio of density of an object like oil or fuel with reference to the material like water with a hydrometer at a given temperature. Variations in specific gravity affect the volumetric fuel consumption of an engine, since the higher the specific gravity the higher the heat content in a unit volume of the fuel. It usually affects the spray pattern of fuel while injected into the cylinder.

 

NOMENCLATURE:

There are two main grades of diesel fuels are marketed in India, the one is High Speed Diesel (HSD) and the another one is LDO (LDO suppliers in Parwanoo). We are the best LDO suppliers in Parwanoo providing the best quality oil as compared to the others. We have described all the properties of diesel fuel and have not hide anything from our customers.

 

 

SPECIFICATION FOR AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL FUEL (BS VI) (IS 1460-2005)

CharacteristicsUnitBharat Stage IIBharat Stage IIIBharat Stage IVBharat Stage VI†

 

Implementation date

2001 (selected cities), 2005 (nationwide)

2005 (selected cities), 2010 (nationwide)

2010 (selected cities), 2017 (nationwide)

2020?(nationwide)

Ash, max

 % mass

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

Carbon Residue (Ramsbottom) on 10% residue, max †

 % mass

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Cetane Number (CN), min

48*

51

51

51

Cetane Index (CI), min

46*

46

46

46

Distillation 95% vol. Recovery at °C, max

°C

360

360

370

Flash point Abel, min

°C

35

35

35

35

Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 °C

cst

2.0-5.0

2.0-5.0

2.0-4.5

2-4.5

Density @ 15 °C

Kg/m3

820-860 (820-870)*

820-845

820-845

820-860

Total Sulfur, max

mg/kg

500

350

50

10

Water content, max

mg/kg

0.05% vol

200

200

200

Cold filter plugging point (CFPP)
a) Summer, max
b) Winter, max

°C
°C

18
6

18
6

18
6

18
6

Total contaminations, max

mg/kg

24

24

24

Oxidation stability, max

g/mg3

25

25

25

Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), max

 % mass

11

11

11

Lubricity, corrected wear scar diameter (wsd 1,4) @ 60 °C, max

µm (microns)

460

460

460

460

Copper Strip corrosion for 3 hrs 
@ 50 °C

Rating

Not worse than No. 1

Class I

Class I

Class I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                  SPECIFICATION FOR LIGHT DIESEL OIL

Technical Specification

BIS Standard for LDO

LDO of oil Marketing companies

Calorific Value, in Kcal/kg

9900 – 10500

10300

Ash% Mass, Max

0.02

0.01-0.02

Carbon Residue (Ramsbottom) on 10% residue % by Mass, Max

1.5

1.5

Density in Kg/M3

To be reported

<890

Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 Deg.C. in cst

5-15.7

5-15.7

Biodegradability

Poor Biodegradability

 

Toxicity

Highly Toxic

 

Fuel type

Polluting Non renewable

 

Shipping

Hazardous

 

Total Sulphur % by mass. Max

1.8

1.5-1.8

Water content, % by volume, Max

0.25

0.25

Flash Point in Deg.C Min

66

66


   

 

 

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